Ahli psikologi kognitif cuba membina model kognitif pemprosesan maklumat yang berlaku di dalam minda, perhatian, persepsi, ingatan, bahasa, kesedaran dan pemikiran orang. Psikologi kognitif pada asasnya adalah sains bagaimana kita berfikir. Ia berminat dengan proses mental dalaman kita seperti persepsi, perhatian, bahasa, perancangan tindakan, dan pemikiran. Setiap komponen ini penting dalam membentuk siapa kita dan bagaimana kita berperilaku. Pemikiran yang berkaitan dengan konsep-konsep ini boleh menjadi tidak sedar atau sedar - kita mungkin secara sedar berusaha untuk memusatkan perhatian kita pada kuliah.
Definisi Psikologi Kognitif Psikologi kognitif adalah kajian saintifik minda sebagai pemproses maklumat. Psikologi kognitif memberi tumpuan kepada cara orang memproses maklumat. Ini berfungsi bagaimana kita memproses dan menerima maklumat dan bagaimana maklumat yang diterima membawa kepada tindak balas kita.
Ahli psikologi kognitif mengkaji proses dalaman yang merangkumi perhatian, persepsi, bahasa, pemikiran, dan ingatan . Mereka mengemukakan soalan seperti:
Bagaimana kita memproses dan menyimpan maklumat?
Bagaimana kita menerima maklumat mengenai dunia?
Bagaimana kita menyelesaikan pelbagai masalah?
Bagaimana kesalahan dalam pemikiran kita menyebabkan tingkah laku negatif dan tekanan emosi?
Bagaimana kerosakan persepsi kita menyebabkan kesalahan dalam pemikiran kita?
Ringkasan Psikologi kognitif adalah kajian saintifik minda sebagai pemproses maklumat. Ahli psikologi kognitif mengkaji proses dalaman yang merangkumi perhatian, persepsi, bahasa, pemikiran, dan ingatan.
Sejarah Psikologi Kognitif Penting untuk mempertimbangkan masa dan konteks di mana psikologi kognitif berkembang, untuk benar-benar memahami asas pertindihan ini. Bermula sebagai murid pada tahun 1950-an, bidang ini dari segi tertentu merupakan reaksi terhadap psikologi yang dominan.
Psikologi tingkah laku bermula dengan ajaran bahawa semua tingkah laku manusia dapat disesuaikan dan dipelajari dengan persekitaran dan konteksnya. Tingkah laku dapat dihukum atau diperkuat dengan pelbagai cara, yang menyebabkan penurunan atau peningkatan tindakan tertentu. Seiring berjalannya kehidupan, satu set tingkah laku akhirnya dibentuk oleh pengalaman-pengalaman ini yang membangkitkan semangat kepada manusia yang mempunyai pelbagai keinginan, minat, kebiasaan, kemahiran, dan kegiatan yang berbeza-beza.
Psikologi kognitif pada dasarnya memerlukan lebih banyak hak pilihan. Dalam proses tingkah laku maklumat perasaan dan fikiran dilihat lebih aktif. Individu dianggap memproses pemikiran yang menentukan apakah dan bagaimana tingkah laku yang harus dilakukan.
Ringkasan Bermula sebagai murid pada tahun 1950-an, bidang ini dari segi tertentu merupakan reaksi terhadap psikologi yang dominan. Psikologi tingkah laku bermula dengan ajaran bahawa semua tingkah laku manusia dapat disesuaikan dan dipelajari dengan persekitaran dan konteksnya.
Tinjauan Psikologi Kognitif Pada tahun 1967 istilah ' psikologi kognitif ' pertama kali digunakan oleh Ulric Neisser. Sejak itu, banyak intervensi telah dikembangkan dari kajian kognitif yang memberi manfaat kepada bidang psikologi. Psikologi kognitif juga dikaitkan dengan banyak disiplin lain. Oleh kerana itu, kadangkala dipelajari oleh orang-orang dalam beberapa bidang yang berbeza termasuk perniagaan, pendidikan, dan perubatan.
Psikologi kognitif adalah fokus masalah dan berorientasikan matlamat sejak awal. Bayangkan anda mendapat rawatan dari ahli psikologi kognitif. Salah satu perkara pertama yang akan diminta untuk anda lakukan adalah mengenali masalah anda dan merangka beberapa tujuan khusus untuk diri anda. Maka anda akan dibantu untuk menyelesaikan masalah anda dengan cara yang akan meningkatkan peluang untuk mencapai matlamat anda.
Semua jenis psikologi kognitif mempunyai empat ciri berikut:
1 . Rawatan pendidikan yang terhad pada masa yang menumpukan pada isu-isu tertentu.
2 . Tumpuan untuk mengubah kognisi untuk mewujudkan perubahan tingkah laku atau emosi yang diinginkan.
3 . A focus on changing cognition to produce desired changes in emotions and/or behavior.
4 . A collaborative relationship between therapist and client.
Cognitive psychology is divided into two areas: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and cognitive therapy (CT). CBT and CT are very similar in their application and theory. The difference is that cognitive behavioral therapy targets the removal of negative behavior as well as cognitive therapy focuses on removing psychological distress.
Summary In 1967 the term 'cognitive psychology' was first used by Ulric Neisser. Cognitive psychology is problem focused and goal oriented from the starting. Cognitive psychology is divided into two areas: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and cognitive therapy (CT).
Theories of Cognitive Psychology There are three theories in cognitive psychology:
- Cognitive Therapy
- Cognitive Behavior Therapy
- Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Therapy Cognitive therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally. Cognitive therapy instead on focuses on past experiences focuses on the current behavior, thinking, and communication and is oriented toward problem solving. Cognitive therapy has been applied to a wide range of problems including anxiety , depression, fears, panic, eating disorders, substance abuse, and personality problems.
Cognitive therapy is often called cognitive behavior therapy because it intend to aid people in the ways they act and in the ways they think. Cognitive therapy has been used to aid ■■■■■■■-dependent individuals become abstinent from ■■■■■■■ and other substances.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy is a general kind of talk therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy aids us become aware of negative or inaccurate thinking so we can view challenging situations more evidently and respond to them in a more better way.
Cognitive behavior therapy can be a helpful tool either in combination or alone with other therapies in curing mental health disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, eating or depression disorder. Not every individual who benefits from cognitive behavioral therapy has a mental health problem. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be a useful tool to aid anyone learn how to better manage stressful life situations.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a helpful tool to guide emotional challenges. it may help the person:
Manage chronic physical symptoms
Learn techniques for coping with stressful life situations
Cure the mental illness when medications aren't a good option
Prevent a worsening of mental illness symptoms.
Cope with a medical illness
Cope with loss or grief
Learn better ways to communicate and resolve relationship conflicts.
Overcome emotional trauma related to abuse or violence
Recognize ways to manage emotions
Manage symptoms of illness
Mental health disorders that may better with cognitive behavioral therapy include:
How to get rid of depression Here it is essential to know how to get rid of depression ? This disorder is often treated with medication and psychotherapy. Adjustments of some lifestyle can also help ease certain symptoms.
People who have severe major depressive disorder or who have thoughts of harming themselves may need to stay in a hospital during treatment to protect them from harm. Some patients might also need to take part in an out patient treatment program until unless symptoms improve.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy that aids the person recognize feelings and self-defeating thoughts, challenge the rationality of those feelings, and replace them with healthier beliefs.
Rational emotive behavior works mostly on the current time to help the person understand how unhealthy beliefs and thoughts create emotional distress which, in turn, leads to unhealthy behaviors that interfere with present life goals. Once recognized and understood, negative actions and thoughts can be replaced and changed with more productive behavior, allowing the person to develop more successful professional and personal relationships.
How it works In the mid 1950s rational emotive behavior therapy evolved from the work of psychiatrist Albert Ellis as the original form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Ellis believed that most people are not alert that many of their thoughts about themselves negatively affect the way they behave in essential situations and relationships.
According to Ellis, it is these thoughts that lead people to suffer negative emotions At the same time, humans are capable of changing their irrational beliefs, if they are willing to do the work. However specific life events may devote to mental health problems, Rational emotive behavior therapist therapists believe that it is an individual's own irrational belief system that causes the most problems.
Summary Cognitive psychology have three theories : Cognitive Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Cognitive therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a general kind of talk therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy that aids the person recognize feelings.
Applications of Cognitive Psychology
Social psychology Social cognition is a sub division of social psychology. It is basically applied to human interactions in the society. Social psychology is the scientific study of the human minds those are involved in different functions like remembering, perceiving, memory or making senses about the people of the social world.
Educational psychology In educational psychology there are various applications of the cognitive psychology. The study of cognitive psychology aids the people in a broad range for their purposes of educational gathering knowledge. We know metacognition, which is a broad concept of the cognitive study helps to focus on the self-monitoring. Thus, it helps the students to check out their experiences and knowledge, which helps them to better their areas of knowledge and education.
In educational psychology the study of cognitive psychology also aids the students to assimilate their specific knowledge with the specific tasks which suit betterly for the knowledge. It helps to develop the students' abilities and skills. It also aids the students to be more efficient on their specific tasks for which they are assigned to.
In educational psychology the main application of the cognitive psychology is that it focuses on the understanding of how the brain holds the memory, knowledge, skills and other abilities in an organized way. This mapping of the brain is also largely beneficial for the students on their field of education.
Development psychology The field of the development psychology is mainly based upon the developments on cognitive models. The developmental psychology aids mainly the children of ages 4 to 6 to develop their mental capability, understanding, ideas, feelings, thoughts and other mental criteria as well. It helps the children to identify their thoughts and individual mental states. It also aids to develop them.
Personality psychology Personality psychology includes many applications of cognitive psychology .Cognitive therapy and cognitive psychology is broadly used for the treatment of the different personality disorders in the recent years with the huge development of this side. All the personality disorders come under the personality psychology. Thus, the scientific study of the cognitive psychology plays important role in the field of personality psychology and in our day to day life and it aids to make some better future for us.
In Abnormal psychology the cognitive psychology is broadly used. According to the Aaron T.Beck works, who is the father of cognitive therapy, in abnormal psychology the cognitive psychology has many applications as he indicate only 60% to 65% people all over the world who are suffering from depressions . He also indicate the adverse effects of taking different types of drugs. Beck tried to motivate patients to use the cognitive therapy as a remedy for the depressive problems .
Summary There are five applications of cognitive psychology. Abnormal psychology, social psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology and personality psychology.
What are the cognitive processes Cognitive processes refer to many tasks. They are procedures in charge of processing all the information we receive from the environment. Imagine you are sitting on your bed while watching a drama. Even though the movie is amazing, you start smelling something burning. What do you do? Fortunately, your brain will center all of its attention.
After a while, Suddenly you remember that you had a pizza in the oven. You will run to the kitchen as fast as you can and coordinate a series of motor movements to take the pizza out of the oven. Then you will decide whether to eat the less burnt parts or go back to the room. Cognitive processes have guided this whole actions and scenarios.
Summary Cognitive processes refer to many tasks. They are procedures in charge of processing all the information we receive from the environment.
Basic Cognitive Processes
Attention Life has various different happening at the same time, but, we are capable of centering our attention on the stimuli that interest us. Some actions such as chewing and walking need a little bit attention. Other activities such as body language and speaking need focus, especially when we are giving a lecture.
There are different types of attention including focused attention, arousal, selective attention, sustained attention, divided attention, and alternating attention. Attention is the cognitive process that makes it possible to position ourselves towards relevant stimuli and consequently respond to it.
Perception and Sensation We are using our perception continuously without even noticing it. We are conscious of messages we receive on our phone other people's movements, our posture, food flavors, etc. Our past experiences also play a role in the explanation of different stimuli.
Sensations are caused by different incentives in environment. The stimuli first reach our senses and allow us to filter information from the outside world. Perception takes over Once we receive this information, and we start explaining these stimuli.
Memory We have different kinds of memory; short-term memory, sensory memory, semantic memory, working memory, etc. All these kinds of memories interact together but they don't all depend on the same brain areas. Cognitive processes such as memory are important for daily life.
Memory, as a cognitive process, involves encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding refers to the mechanism where information is altered from the moment it reaches us to a form that our brain can store. Storage refers to how long the memory lasts for, and what kind of information is held. Finally, retrieval refers to getting information out storage. We can also improve the memory by the help of various factors.
How to improve the memory? Here it is essential to know how to improve the memory. . Here are some evidence-based ways to improve your memory naturally.
Summary Basic cognitive processes are the sensation and perception, attention and memory. Attention is the cognitive process that makes it possible to position ourselves towards relevant stimuli and consequently respond to it. We are using our perception continuously without even noticing it. Memory, as a cognitive process, involves encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Complex Cognitive Processes
Language We are capable of comprehending and producing different words and sounds, combine different phrases and letters and expressing with precision what we want to communicate, even in different languages. We use our body language to communicate.
Language development is produced all throughout our lifetime. The communicative skills of each individual vary significantly and can be make better by practice. Some language disorders make it difficult to communicate for different reasons, however it is also possible to aid people with these problems.
Intelligence There is not only one intelligence according to the Gardner's multiple bit of intelligence. He established that linguistic intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, musical intelligence and logical-mathematical intelligence, are examples of higher cognitive processes. Emotional intelligence has caught people's attention, it is the ability to manage the difficulties we face daily.
We can always work to boost and enhance our different types of intelligence and we shouldn't limit ourselves to a number given from a specific intelligence test.
Thought The heterogeneity and complexity of our thoughts are interesting. This higher mental process is responsible for tasks related to reasoning, problem-solving, decision-making, divergent thinking, creative thinking, etc.
Concepts are create by our brain. We need to group objects, ideas, people or any other kind of elements that come to mind. Commonly, this helps us streamline our cognitive processes. However, often ignore how irrational we can be and often we try to be logical. We take shortcuts to process information faster not taking into account the details that might be essential. This can cause cognitive biases which are changes from the normal process of reasoning. :
Summary Complex cognitive processes include: Intelligence, language and thoughts. There is not only one intelligence according to the Gardner's multiple bit of intelligence. Language development is produced all throughout our lifetime. The heterogeneity and complexity of our thoughts are interesting.
How can we improve our Cognitive processes We can improve our cognitive processes at any stage in our lives. Here are some tips on how to improve and take care of our cognitive processes.
Avoid Multitasking It is general that our requirements are many and we don't know how to get all of them done. It's normal that we try to multitask so we can finish our whole work fastly. But, this can be counterproductive because our attention is not centered on one activity. For instance, if you are watching a drama while you are answering an email, cooking and writing a paper it is very likelihood that one of those things will turn out wrong. It's suitable to center your attention in the present in order to enjoy each activity to the fullest and be more efficient.
Develop Critical thinking Try to look for different arguments and ask yourself questions This allows for critical thinking to develop, and in turn enhances creativity, language and reasoning. Curiosity is necessary in order to develop our full potential. Critical thinking can be developed from childhood, by asking children to reason, debate and explain their actions and decisions. You can also put these into practice!
Take Care of your health Our mental and physical health is inseparable from our cognitive processes. There are many bad habits that harm our brains and worsen our performance in different aspects of our lives. For Instance, neglecting our social relationships , underestimating ourselves, being on our cell phone before going to bed, or not eating properly can affect our mental processes.
Dedicate time to creative activities Writing short stories, painting, dancing, composing songs, and performing. It doesn't matter the activity you choose, the necessary thing is that creativity is being used. Creativity is all about practice, so go out and try something new!
Creativity allows us to develop our concentration, intelligence, sustained attention, problem-solving, and ability to relax and de-stress.
Read Reading implies lots of cognitive processes as described above. Other than producing great knowledge and satisfaction, reading is also a way to learn to work and focus on our communication skills.
Summary We can improve our cognitive processes by avoiding multitasking, taking care of our health, developing critical thinking, dedicating time to creative activities and reading.
What is cognitive psychology used for? Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mind as an information processor. Cognitive psychologists try to build up cognitive models of the information processing that goes on inside people's mind including attention, perception, memory, thinking, consciousness and language.
What is the example of cognitive psychology? Example of cognitive psychology : Making a judgement about something based on information received that brain processes. If one were to major in cognitive psychology the person would study memory, attention span and reasoning.
Is cognitive psychology hard? A study of the basic internal psychological processes that are involved in making sense of the environment and deciding what action might be appropriate. Cognitive psychology is a hard subject to study because it is invisible to human eyes.
What are the 8 cognitive skills?
Speed of information processing
Cognitive flexibility and control
Multiple simultaneous attention
What is the difference between cognitive impairment and dementia? Dementia is more severe than mild cognitive impairment. A person with Alzheimer's disease or a related illness will have issues with everyday activities such as keeping track of medications or driving than someone with mild cognition impairment.
Conclusion Cognitive psychology is basically the science of how we think. Cognitive psychology focuses on the way people process information. It works on how we process and receive the information and how the received information leads to our responses. Cognitive psychology is problem focused and goal oriented from the starting. Cognitive psychology is divided into two areas: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and cognitive therapy (CT). Cognitive therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy based on the concept that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a general kind of talk therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is a short-term form of psychotherapy that aids the person recognize feelings and self-defeating thoughts. Cognitive processes refer to many tasks. They are procedures in charge of processing all the information we receive from the environment.
Cognitive perspective Psychology